Articles in IM91 - January 2016
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Summary of the main articles in IM 91 which was published in January 2016.
Report on the pre- and post-mill tours undertaken as part of the 14th TIMS Symposium in Rumania by a variety of authors
This report covers the four day pre-symposium tour of south-west Rumania known as the Banat which has the River Danube as its southern border. This tour was based at Baile Herculeanum, a very faded spa from the Austro-Hungarian days that specialised in the convalescence of the officer class overlaid with the ruins of the peoples’ paradise during the communist era. Today renovation of some of the buildings is taking place but many are still in ruins waiting for the right investment opportunity. Most of the mills were small, horizontal watermills, but the local population was very friendly, providing large amounts of palinka, the local source of alcohol made from fruit.
The post-symposium tour occupying seven days was more mobile as it ranged over the whole of Transylvania and even across the border into Hungary, almost as far as the border with Ukraine. Accommodation varied between staying in private houses to large recently built hotel complexes. One hotel at a proposed winter sports resort was obviously based on the Sidney Opera House! The mills varied from the simple horizontal corn mill (sometimes with fulling wash tub) to the more complex roller milling and oil producing installations dating from the beginning of the 20th century. Many of the mills also used water power to assist in the production of the ubiquitous palinka.
The Birth and Aims of TIMS 50 Years Ago by Tarcis van Berge Henegouwen.
This article looks at the early gestation period of the organisation now known as TIMS. This was a lengthy process that needed evaluation to determine the practical date at which TIMS can be considered to have been started for the calculation of TIMS 50th anniversary. The contibutions of Frederick Stockhuyzen and João Miguel dos Santos Simões are examined as well as their stated aims for the Society when it was founded.
Terminology, Typology and Classification: Three Essentials of Molinology by Berthold Moog.
Although the need for a consistent mill terminology appears obvious, this article looks at some of the difficulties involved in achieving this over a number of languages. Also discussed are the problems of introducing standard typologies and classifications. One only has to consider the Dutch “watermill”, which is usually used to mean a drainage windmill, to appreciate the extent of these problems. Notwithstanding these difficulties the author provides a comprehensive classification for watermills, windmills, muscle powered and other mills based primarily on the types of prime movers used.
The Windmills of the Campo de Cartegena, Part 3 – Cereal Grinding by Chris Gibbings.
This third part of the author’s trilogy on the windmills around Cartagena in Southern Spain concentrates on the oldest form of windmill in the area, those used to grind cereals. This type of windmill tower is smaller than those used for raising water and pumping brine, however the mechanism of the sails and cap are similar. These simple mills with one pair of millstones have an unusual arrangement for operating the tentering and often used a fly ball governor. A look at this type of mill historically is followed by information based on the author’s visit and survey work in the region undertaken in 1978.
Grain Mills in North-Eastern Bulgaria by Erik Tijman.
This article describes three examples of grain mills visited in Bulgaria during 2011. The first was a sunken post mill in Belintsy, which is the last remaining windmill in working order in the country. Details of the mill and its machinery are given along with some historical information concerning windmills in Bulgaria. The second molinological installation described is a hand mill in the Ethnographic Museum of Kotel where the runner stone runs in a hollow in the bedstone which has a slot cut in its circumference to discharge the meal. Finally, an abandoned watermill at Neykovo, near Kotel, with an overshot wheel was visited. The two pairs of millstones are described together with their inscriptions (using the Cyrillic alphabet) as is the construction of the various gear wheels and the possible layout of the various shafts and pulleys.
Jonegarden: A Norwegian Mill Complex by Yolt IJzerman.
Jonegarden is a farm located near Huskviet, part way between Stavangar and Bergen in Norway. The site is now managed by the local museum and has five small water powered installations driven by a large waterfall, powering six different types of use. A corn mill and a water powered drying kiln, both driven by “Norse” wheels, located on the left bank of the river are described as is the small wheel that can be placed in the mill launder to power a grindstone. There is an arrangement for taking power from the corn mill via a cable and pulleys to the other side of the river to drive various woodworking machines. There is also a flutter wheel used to power a circular saw. Finally, details of a small overshot waterwheel are given that once drove by cable drive various machines at the farm, which was some 100 m away.
A Tide Mill on the Salt Marsh of Canada’s Bay of Fundy by Kerr Canning.
Over the last ten years or so the author has recorded the emergence of the remains of two sawmills that had been buried in the salt marshes at the head of the Bay of Fundy in Canada. Over those years field work has discovered details of the water management system which have been coordinated with documentary research into the ownership and operation of the mills. The emergence of the waterwheel shaft in the winter of 2011-12 provided much information about the waterwheel’s construction and further relics uncovered in 2014 gave clues to the size of the mill and the saw carriage. Each year more relics are uncovered by the winter scouring of the site which also removes any evidence uncovered in the previous year. This project is on-going as further scouring uncovers more remaining parts of the mill presently buried beneath the surface of the marsh.
Windmills on the Island of Aegina, Greece by Wessel Koster and Olga Lekou.
Aegina is a Greek island in the Saronic Gulf between Attica (Athens region) and the Peloponnese. This study began by consulting old maps of the island, bibliographic references, old photographs, engravings and paintings to determine the extent that windpower was used on the island in the past. The authors then describe all the remains of windmills that they discovered on the island, a total of twenty or possibly twenty one, none of which had any remains of machinery, but which is an impressive number given the small size of the island.
The Tide Mills of the Sado Estuary, Portugal by Ana Cláudia Silveira.
This study into the ten tide mills of the Sado Estuary just south of Lisbon, and the influence of the Military Order of Santiago is part of a larger research project to establish new chronologies, extend the geographical ambit of their distribution and identify some of the people responsible for their construction and the respective connections. These tide mills were built between the 14th and 18th centuries and, during the 16th century, coincided with demographic growth within the country and the beginning of overseas exploration and colonisation, both of which required the milling capacity available to be increased. The investors and mill owners have been identified as members of the urban aristocracy, participating in local government and in the administration of the Military Order of Santiago.
Also included in this edition of International Molinology is a small item about the The Windmill Section of the Friends of the Technical Museum in Brno, Czech Republic by Jan Doubek and a brief note about Flour Spatulas
Book reviews include Lexicon der Mühlenkunde (Encyclopedia of Molinology) by Berthold Moog and Die Mühlenkaskade von Ephesos - Studien zur Technikgeschichte und zur Versorgung einer spätantiken bis frühbyzantinischen Stadt (The Cascade of Mills at Ephesus – A Study of the Technical History and Supply of a late Antiquity to early Byzantine City) by Stefanie Wefers.